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                 中國古代司法并非一味以刑殺為威,相反,所追求的是“訟簡刑清”,力求實現刑措而不用的和諧社會。孔夫子說“聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎”發揮了長久的影響作用。歷代所謂“盛世”,其重要標志之一就是“法致中和,囹圄常空”。“以和為貴”的司法理念在實踐中即表現為調解息訟。
          唐代時調解息訟漸成風氣
                早在漢朝已經有調解和息爭訟的史例。據《后漢書·循吏列傳》劉矩為縣令時,“民有爭訟,矩常引之于前,提耳訓告,以為忿恚可忍,縣官不可入,使歸更尋思,訟者感之,輒各罷去”。韓延壽為左馮翊守時,“民有昆弟相與訟田,自言”,韓延壽自責未宣明教化,遂閉門思過。兩昆弟深刻自悔,表示終死不再相爭。韓延壽以此“恩信周遍二十四縣,莫敢以辭訟自言者”。
                至唐朝禮法結合進入新階段,司法官多以倫理為據調解爭訟。例如開元中韋景駿任肥鄉令,“縣人有母子相訟者,景駿謂之曰:‘吾少孤,每見人養親,自恨終無天分,汝幸在溫清之地,何得如此?錫類不行,令之罪也。’因垂涕嗚咽,仍取《孝經》付令習讀之,于是母子感悟,各請改悔,遂稱慈孝。”有些著名的良吏致仕以后,鄉人也請其裁決紛爭。唐高宗時,元讓以太子右內率府長史任滿還鄉,“鄉人有爭訟,不詣州縣,皆就(元)讓決焉。”說明唐時調解息訟漸成風氣。
                宋時調解稱為“和對”,已有官府調解、鄉曲親戚調解、宗族調解之分,而且趨向制度化。元朝調解結案以后,嚴定不許再起訟端。
                清朝時調解息訟是考察地方官的重要指標,調解息訟案件的形式已經多樣化和規范
                至清朝,調解息訟案件的形式已經多樣化和規范化。清朝調解分為州縣官調解與民間調解兩類。州縣調解是在州縣官主持下對民事案件和輕微刑事案件的調解,是訴訟內調解,帶有一定的強制性。根據檔案材料,在當事人“吁請”息訟的甘結中,雙方都申明“依奉結得”,即遵命和息。州縣官還通過“不準”狀的辦法,促成雙方和解,所謂“善批者可以解釋誣妄于訟起之初。”
                由于調解息訟是州縣官的治績和“大計”(考察地方官)的重要指標,因此州縣官對于自理案件,首先著眼于調解,調解不成時,才予以審結。康熙時陸隴其任河北靈壽縣知縣,每審民事案件,則傳喚原告、被告到庭,勸導雙方說:“爾原被(告)非親即故,非故即鄰,平日皆情之至密者,今不過為戶婚、田土、錢債細事,一時拂意,不能忍耐,致啟訟端。殊不知一訟之興,未見曲直,而吏有紙張之費,役有飯食之需,證佐之友必須酬勞,往往所費多于所爭,且守候公門,費時失業。一經官斷,須有輸贏,從此鄉黨變為訟仇,薄產化為烏有,切齒數世,悔之晚矣”。
          古代還有多種形式的民間調解
                民間調解是訴訟外調解,其主要形式有宗族調解、鄉鄰調解和基層保甲長調解,而以宗族調解最為普遍。族內調解一般先由族長剖決是非,不得輕易告官涉訟。安徽桐城《祝氏宗譜》規定:“族眾有爭競者,必先鳴戶尊、房長理處,不得遽興訟端”。江西南昌《魏氏宗譜》也規定:“族中有口角小憤及田土差役賬目等項,必須先經投族眾剖決是非,不得徑往府縣誑告滋蔓”。由此可見,民間發生的大量民事糾紛,在告官興訟之前,往往在家族內部經由族長調處化解。但由于宗族內部成員在身份上有嚴格的尊卑之分,又有遠近親疏的支派之別,特別是門房的人丁財勢有強弱,嫡庶之間法定的權利有高下,因此族內成員在接受調處時,往往因其在族內的地位而處于不平等的狀態,說明宗族調處也帶有某種強迫性。
                至于鄉鄰調解,在中國也有著深刻的社會原因。中國古代封閉式的經濟、政治環境,形成了安土重遷的觀念,由此而產生了強固的地緣關系。鄉鄰之間幾代人比鄰而居,有無相通,患難相扶,一旦發生爭訟,鄉鄰調解也可以起到一定的作用。
                調解息訟的司法傳統,反映了中華民族重和諧和睦的民族精神
                調解息訟之所以成為司法的一個傳統,除儒家思想的影響和州縣官追求政績外,也與皇帝的指向密切攸關。例如,康熙《圣諭十六條》明確要求:“敦孝悌以重人倫,篤宗族以昭雍睦”,“和鄉黨以息爭訟,息誣告以全良善”。
                調解息訟的司法傳統,反映了中華民族重和諧和睦的民族精神。中華民族在發展的過程中受到倫理道德的影響,以宗族內部的和睦相處為重要的價值取向;又在生產生活的斗爭中體驗到人與人之間只有和睦相處,互相幫助,才能取得生存與發展的機會。正是這種樸素的規律性的認識,使得中華民族形成了以和為貴,以爭為恥的理念。在固有國情影響下形成的穩定的血緣關系和地緣關系,也為重和諧和睦的民族精神的形成提供了重要條件。如同宋人胡石壁所說,“大凡鄉曲鄰里,務要和睦。才自和睦,則有無可以相通,緩急可以相助,疾病可以相扶持,彼此皆受其利。”這種民族精神不僅締造了調解息訟的司法傳統,而且還是中華民族凝聚力之所在和多元一體的民族關系賴以形成的重要因素。

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