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           莫志信 莫德 詠菊
                十七世紀俄國冒險家哈巴羅夫的記錄里有如下記載:“達斡爾人被移民到阿穆爾河上游一帶居住,他們在那里從事農牧業生產,每隔三四十俄里就設有防御設施良好的城寨。城寨內有石造的房屋,其房屋窗高2俄尺(1俄尺=0.71公尺)寬1.5俄尺,窗上糊紙,紙是他們自造的。每所建筑物可住六十人以上。"這是有關描述達斡爾人住宅的最古老確切的資料。這種對住宅的描述雖說與現實中他們的住宅有差別,但是,從中可以得知自古以來,他們曾是何等具有住宅文化的優秀民族。
                達斡爾族的房屋建筑樣式和漢族的房屋建筑樣式,看似無太大區別,但若仔細觀察就會發現其建筑結構方面的獨特技巧了。達斡爾人將他們本族的房屋稱為“有骨架的房子”,而漢族的房屋則被稱為“泥土房屋”。兩個民族房屋建筑樣式上的不同在于漢人正房兩側的東西眉上不安窗戶,而達斡爾人則安上很大的窗戶。窗戶的格木在里面,窗戶紙糊在外面,與中國東北相同,室內還設有用來烘干糧食的回龍火炕。
                 隨著時代的變遷,社會的不斷進步和發展,達斡爾族院落模式也在不斷進步緊跟時代發展,由原來的窯洞(地洞)、草房、土房到磚房,由爐子取暖到暖氣供暖。
                 下面是對海拉爾地區的達斡爾早期宅院內部結構做的調查整理。
                 第一套宅院,是上世紀40年代的泥土房子,位置在海拉爾南門外,當時是達斡爾族居住區。宅院占地面積260平方米左右,院中設有住房、倉庫、牛舍、儲草場、房前小院做主人休息娛樂用,人和牲畜用過道分開。院內共有兩間房,西屋是里屋,東屋為廚房,里屋與外屋之間有隔墻,隔墻中間是木門(格柵),居室的南、北、西三面建有相連的三鋪火炕,炕上鋪葦席,廚房煙火和余熱都經過炕洞順煙洞冒出。達斡爾民宅多開西窗,采光充足,室內明亮,木格窗從外面糊上“高粱紙”,窗紙上噴灑酥油用來提高亮度和防御雨雪能力。采用鐵爐、火爐、火炕取暖。冬季為了保暖在屋頂蓋上羊糞或笘草。
                 第二套宅院是50年代修建的土房,房屋結構有所改進,北邊是走廊兼廚房,南邊是兩間臥室,臥室地面為地板,采用火炕、火墻取暖。
                 第三套宅院是60年代修建的土房,房屋結構又有所改進,走廊改到中間,西邊設有臥室、小客廳和書房,東邊房間主要做臥室,東北間設有廚房,仍采用火墻、火炕取暖。
                 第四套宅院位置在鄂溫克旗巴彥托海鎮,是70年代的修建的土房。宅院占地面積約500平方米,院內共有三間房,西屋北面設有火炕,東屋為小臥室和客廳。
                 第五套宅院是80年代修建的磚房,位置也在鄂溫克旗巴彥托海鎮。院子占地面積約400平方米左右,房屋外墻為磚砌夾芯保溫墻,房頂為鐵皮屋蓋,灰條抹灰保溫吊頂,院內共有三間房,西屋南面有一鋪火炕,東屋也有一鋪火炕,中間是臥室兼客廳,北屋連著廚房和臥室。臥室、客廳鋪有木龍骨木地板,其他房間為瓷磚地面。采用火墻、火炕與土鍋爐混合方式采暖。院內有小倉房、煤倉、牛棚、一小塊兒菜地。
                第六套宅院是90年代的磚房,宅院占地面積約430平方米,房頂采用鐵皮屋蓋。西、南面房間為臥室,北面房間是客廳和廚房。臥室、客廳地面鋪有木龍骨木地板,廚房和衛生間為瓷磚地面,石膏板保溫吊頂,采用暖氣供暖。
                 達斡爾宅院的變遷,體現了社會的不斷進步發展,達斡爾人的物質、文化、生產、生活等方面也不斷得到改善。但是隨著時代的發展,一個民族的民俗記憶風土人情也可能隨著歷史洪流而淡化消失,因此,傳承和保護我們不斷消失的記憶也是我們當前所需要思考的問題。
                 作者簡介:
                 莫志信(1944-),男,達斡爾族,原鄂溫克旗規劃建筑設計院院長、鄂溫克旗建設局高級規劃師,總工程師。研究方向:建筑規劃。
                 莫德(1964-),男,達斡爾族,呼倫貝爾學院圖書館副研究館員。研究方向:民族文獻研究。
                 詠菊(1978-),女,達斡爾族,鄂溫克旗建設局高級工程師。研究方向:建筑設計與規劃。

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