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          吳青
              一、火災頻發民間消防隊登場
              清朝末年,廣州城得到較快發展,人口增加,城市空間變得逼仄,而城區的建筑還多以磚木建構為主,加上火藥、煤油等西方近代工業品的普及,使得廣州地區火災發生的頻率和危害急劇增加,小火災幾乎每天都有,大火災也頻繁發生。據不完全統計,自1840年至1911年,有記載的特大惡性火災就達200多起,許多還是車船火災、工廠火災、工業品火災等新型火災,而且大多集中在中心城區發生,經常“火燒連營”。
              1893年6月24日,三元里火藥局大爆炸,周圍各鄉“居人之被藥力攝去顛墜數里之外,軀殘肢裂,血肉狼藉,以及被墻壁壓倒葬身瓦礫叢中者,正不可計數”,僅瑤臺一鄉死傷人數就有1000余人。1909年1月30日,大沙頭碼頭“財記”花艇不慎起火,因撲救不力,火勢蔓延至30余艘花艇,使當時廣州的銷金窩大沙頭的大多數花艇付之一炬,“大抵男女斃命人數總在三四百人以外”。1895年9月14日,回瀾橋腳豆欄東街振興機器店煤油燈傾瀉在地,而“店內滿積煤炭、硝磺、洋油等引火之物。一經燃著,致不可收拾”。當晚“火乘風力過對河寶順大街,兩街鋪戶頓成灰燼”,被燒毀的商鋪達117間,財產損失慘重。
              雖然廣州城長期深受火災之害,但清末時局動蕩,政權羸弱,官方無力支撐和供養一支足夠強大的消防隊伍,很多民間救火組織便應運而生。這些救火組織名稱繁多,如水龍局、水局、水會、水社、水車公所等,基本都是街坊商鋪自發集資購置水車等裝備,“鋪多者或以一街而設數車,鋪少者則以數街而設一車”。
              另外,民間救火隊從“值理(負責人)至隊員均屬義務,指定每一間鋪戶,派一二人入伍,每人發給布背心一件,竹帽一頂,號數小牌一面”。救火隊員每次出動救火后會得到一定的茶資,費用由各店鋪和居民捐租捐資籌集。被救的街坊,也會向到場的救火隊標貼長紅,并送給謝車費,以示鳴謝。
              當時,廣州的民間救火隊在消防方面扮演了獨特的角色,作出重大貢獻,被譽為“吾粵之最有團體、最有公德、最有毅力者”。
              二、往往比官辦的還早到火場
              1906年(光緒三十二年),廣州官辦的消防組織終于成立。廣東巡警總局設立了消防課,主要司職火災預防、消防片區劃分、消防所建設、消防人員編練及考核獎懲、對民辦消防隊的輔導和監督。與此同時,廣州第一座消防所也在三府前(位于海珠南路)設立。
              進入民國,廣州的經濟活動更是日益活躍,火災危害也是越發加劇。1921年廣州正式建市后,情況更加惡化。
              數據顯示,民國時期的廣州,每年火災幾乎都在100次以上;1931年至1935年連續五年,每年達200次以上;1923年至1933年,每年被燒毀房屋704間;1923至1935年,每年因火災造成的財產損失2012641.1銀元,死亡人數13.8人,受傷人數14.8人。
              民國成立后至廣州正式建市前,廣州民間消防和官辦消防發展都較為緩慢,盡管兩者在撲救火災過程中經常協作,但相互之間關系并不密切,也不存在統屬關系,一般各行其是。
              1921年廣州市政廳成立后,官辦消防實力明顯提高,民間消防亦有所發展。同年,廣州市總商會在長堤成立廣州市慈善救火會,這是近代廣州市第一個全市性民間消防組織,到了民國中期,漸成廣州規模最大的民間消防組織。
              民國初期,廣州民間消防組織仍延續了清末時的做法,為市民互助合作團體,消防器械的購置由市民捐助,消防隊員也由市民自愿擔任,部分民間消防組織會給消防隊員一定的生活補助費,但大部分消防隊員都是義務的,一般由商店店員充任。廣州市慈善救火會中的執行委員、監察委員等也屬于義務性質,一般不領薪酬。
              這種模式帶來兩個弊端:一是經費需要自行募集,來源不穩定。二是消防隊員平日各有本職工作,缺乏全面系統的訓練,技能水平提升較慢,救火時容易發生傷亡事故。
              1927年初起,廣州市公安局決定強化民辦消防人員的訓練。市消防總所每周三、周六兩天,向各民間消防隊分別派出兩名教練員進行消防技能傳授。
              盡管民間消防隊的專業能力稍遜,但他們對廣州消防的貢獻不容否定。據廣州市政府編印的《廣州市火災統計》一書記載,1929年廣州市損失1萬銀元以上火災共25次,大部分是由官方的消防總所和民間的慈善救火會共同撲救的。
              當時,每當市內發生火災,市民都會同時向消防總所和救火會報警,后者還經常先于消防警察到達火災現場,有時還能單獨完成撲救。
              平時,民間消防組織還充分利用隊員與街坊聯系緊密的優勢,大力在民間開展消防知識宣傳。慈善救火會就將火災預防知識、滅火技巧以及制作防火材料的方法等收錄在其編印的《消防指南》、《救火匯刊》等書刊中,隊員利用上班和訓練機會,向民眾派送和宣講。此外,民間消防組織還經常舉行公開演習、會操、消防設備檢查和試驗,吸引市民觀看,宣傳消防知識。
              三、受制于官方的義勇消防隊
              1929年4月27日,國民政府內政部頒布《擴充消防組織大綱》,規定“火災消防組織應直轄于市縣公安局,其由自治團體組織者應特別獎勵,但須受市縣公安局之監督指揮”,正式賦予官方消防機構對民辦消防組織的監督指揮權。
              此后,官辦消防機構對民辦消防組織的控制更逐步加強。一方面,廣州消防總所按其頒布的《管理民辦消防隊規則》,要求民辦消防隊在平時訓練及救火過程中皆要服從其指揮,并明確劃分各民辦消防隊的責任地段。另一方面,由慈善救火會、公安局、社會局各派兩人組成一個“整理委員會”,對慈善救火會的經費、人員、設備等情況進行清查整理。
              1935年1月25日,公安局又于提出慈善救火會存在“辦理不善、成績太低、徒耗市民捐輸”,“強行捐款”,“每向災場店戶索酬”,(隊兵)“素乏訓練、管理無方、屢在市內滋生事端”,“閑員多于消防人員,雜支多于消防餉項”等問題,將該會撤銷,由消防總所接管并改編為第五分所,經費改由公安局全額支給。
              1945年10月,廣州市消防總隊決定組建各區義勇消防委員會,將原來撤銷的慈善救火會屬下的民間救火隊改編為各區的義勇消防隊,向其撥付部分消防設備,并派員負責指導和訓練。在官方的大力推動下,至1947年底,太平、惠福等19個區都成立了義勇消防隊,共有368名隊員,擁有27600余尺帆布水喉、22輛小型滅火機。
              這時的義勇消防隊,在經費、人員等方面均受消防總隊控制,義勇消防委員會也沒有自主權,與早前由市民自行組建并管理的民間消防組織存在較大差異。

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