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          倪方六
              1.古人幾歲開始上學
              現在孩子一般六七歲入學,古代大體在8歲至15歲之間。現代家長忌諱的“八歲八糊涂”的入學年齡,在古代最主流。好多名人都是8歲入學的,如東漢哲學家王充、宋代文學家蘇東坡等。
              《大戴禮記·保傅》稱,“古者年八歲而出就外舍,學小藝焉,履小節焉”。但《尚書大傳·略說》則稱“古之帝王者,必立大學、小學……十有三年始入小學”,同篇中還有“十五始入小學,見小節,踐小義”的記載。
              可見,先秦對入學年齡無統一要求。明清時期,“大齡入學”傳統一直未改變。《嘉靖太平縣志》載,明代太平縣“令民間子冀盼八歲以上、十五歲以下,皆入社學”。《嘉靖香山縣志》則稱,有讀書潛質的“八歲至十有四者,皆入學”。
              而唐代孩子的入學年齡比其他朝代提前一兩歲,與現在差不多,即六七歲入學也可以,如唐代醫學家孫思邈便是“七歲就學”。據《舊唐書·孫思邈傳》,孫思邈雖是7歲入學,但當時已能“日誦千余言”,以至洛州總管獨孤信見之大為驚嘆,稱“此圣童也”。
              具體幾歲入學,古人也視孩子的心智發育情況而定。甚至20歲讀小學的都有。明魏校《莊渠遺書·渝民文》稱,“凡為父兄者,如有子弟年六七歲至二十歲未冠者,俱要送入社學。”社學,即地方官府奉朝廷詔令所設的“鄉村小學”。
              還有30多歲讀小學的特例。據《魏書·劉蘭傳》,北魏人劉蘭,便是“年三十余,始入小學”。
              2.讀書不學好會挨揍
              古代對學生的管理較嚴厲,大多家長也認同“不打不成器”。讀書不認真或學不好,被打板子、抽鞭子、罰跪如家常便飯。王充《論衡·自紀篇》稱,“書館小僮百人以上,皆以過失袒謫,或以書丑得鞭”。可見,在漢代就流行體罰學生。
              體罰在古代叫“撻罰”。到明代,撻罰為鄉村小學普遍采用,連學生家人都跟著受罰。明黃佐《泰泉鄉禮·鄉校》中規定:“無故而逃學一次,罰誦書二百遍;二次,加樸撻,罰紙十張;三次,撻罰如前,仍罰其父兄。”
              當然,也有的老師很人性,給“三好生”學生開“免打條”。明理學家沈鯉就主張,“學生勤學者、有進益者、守學規者,給免帖一紙,遇該責時,姑免一次”。
              古人還會直接請家長或長者坐進教室,參與班級管理。明代良吏葉春及在惠安辦學時即如此,其《石洞集·惠安政書》中這樣記載:“輪篤實老成者二人,平旦坐左右塾,以序出入。”
              古代還很注重對學生日常行為的稽考,以約束學生行為。如明代有的小學設立“揚善簿”、“改過簿”、“記過格”,好事壞事均記錄在案,作為學生升學錄取時的參考。
              這種“功過簿”并非都由老師填寫,如明代儒學家劉宗周,其家塾修業課程中,要求學生早上起來第一事就是填“記過格”,上列數百種日常行為,有“微過”、“隱過”、“顯過”、“大過”、“叢過”、“成過”等六項評語,讓學生自己評價昨日表現。
              3.怎么考試如何打分
              古代小學主要是識字、寫字、習經史、學六藝。據《宋會要·崇儒》,宋代國子監小學“條制”要求:“小學生八歲能誦一大經,日書字二百”;“十歲加一大經、字一百”;“十二歲以上,又加一大經、字二百”。
              古代檢查學生的學業,也靠考試,俗話說“小考天天有,大考三六九”,在古代還真有。如宋代,老師會逐日測試學生的學習,這叫“日考”;另外還有“月考”、“季考”等。具體考試時間,各朝代、各學校都不同。
              元代的上元縣(今南京市內),便對小學考試時間作出具體規定。據《廟學典禮·行省坐下監察御史申明學校規式》,上元小學的考試,固定在每月的初三、十六兩天。而且,出題和監考要分兩班人。
              明代又有不同,明代理學家沈鯉稱:“朔望日考試,分等第,行賞罰。”但不同的老師,對考試的要求并不相同。儒學家劉宗周便主張“三六九會課,以二題為率”。
              到清代,小學考試形成了制度,根據教學方式與內容的不同,采取不同的考試:公課、月課一月一考,朔望課半月一考,季課一年四考。另有會課的多次考,義學的抽考等等。若重要考試考砸了,還允許“補試”。
              古代考試評分方式較豐富,有“十分制”、“打勾制”、“評語制”等,但無“百分制”。以“打勾制”來說,優秀的打○,一般的打△,差的打×。
              4.教育不公現象也嚴重
              現代的“快慢班”,古代也有。如宋徽宗政和四年(1114年)十二月,頒小學條制,國子監實行“三舍升補法”,班級分“外舍”、“內舍”、“上舍”三種。新生皆分在外舍,成績好的升入內舍;內舍生考得好的,升入上舍。
              實際上,這種快慢班,更有“留級”和“升級”的味道。“三舍法”一度成為當時全國小學的模式。這種對小學生進行分等的做法,很不合理,遭到反對,并沒存在多久。
              古代沒有中學,小學一般是“七年制”、“八年制”或“十年制”,最短的也要三年。所以,古代不是“小升初”,而是“小升大”,小學讀完直接升入太學、國子監一類的高等學府。因此,13歲上大學在古代一點也不稀奇。
              但并非每個小學生都能“小升大”的,鄉村小學生就不可能。即便是在國子監讀書的“官二代”,也有名額限制,如宋代便將大學的升學率控制在50%。《宋史·選舉志三》載,熙寧十年(1077年)推出面向宗室學生的“宗子試法”,規定“十取其五”。
              古代教育不公現象也很嚴重,宋代以后,教育不公問題受到重視。元明清三代,小學教育走向興盛,特別是元代,大力推廣鄉村小學,要求“遍立學校”,五十為一社,“每社立學校一”,農村孩子受教育的機會大增。
              明清時期,由地方官府或慈善人士開辦的義學(義塾),得到進一步發展。義學是免費的,解決窮苦人家孩子的“上學難”問題,這可視為古代的“希望小學”。

          上一篇:中國古代的“首都”觀:都城應位于“天下之中”

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