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                 金秋時節,我國許多院校的新生軍訓陸續展開。事實上,作為國防教育的一個重要組成部分,學生軍訓不是我國的“專利”,在國外也一直很受重視,只是,各國學生軍訓的內容和形式有所不同,請跟隨本文一起來看看——

                  美國

                  補充軍隊人員的重要途徑

                 美國有一套完善的制度規范學生軍訓,除《國防法》《國防教育法》外,還有專門針對青壯年制定的《普遍軍訓與兵役法》。不過,除軍事院校的學生外,美國普通學校并沒有強制性的學生軍訓制度。在當今美國,鍛煉年輕人意志品質的主要方式之一便是童子軍。

                 童子軍是起源于英國的社會軍事教育組織,其軍事化組織風格和訓練內容在美國得到延續。童子軍平時會進行一些軍事和技能訓練,包括急救、發信號、行軍、野外求生、射擊等。美國前總統福特曾表示:“如果沒有童子軍精神,我不會成為出色的海軍軍官,更不可能成為隨時都能做好一切準備的總統。”大批美國軍人都經歷過童子軍的鍛煉。數據顯示,美國宇航局中有超過半數的航天員曾參加過童子軍活動,36.4%的西點軍校學員是童子軍隊員。

                 為強化學生的國防意識,美國在500多所地方院校設立了531個后備軍官訓練團,編配教官和管理人員近7000名,由國防部統一領導,專門負責在校學生的軍事訓練。學生按自愿原則參加,通常會在2年或4年的學制內接受持續訓練,嚴格遵照教學大綱學習初級軍官職責、分隊戰術、射擊、野外生存等軍事技能。

                 從后備軍官訓練團畢業的學生一般會被授予預備役少尉軍銜,其中的好苗子會選擇加入現役部隊。據稱,美國西點軍校、海軍軍官學校、空軍軍官學校等專業軍事院校,每年培養的軍官數量只占美軍每年新任命軍官總數的15%,其余大部分都來自后備軍官訓練團。有數據顯示,美軍現役部隊中有30%的將軍和40%的校、尉級軍官,是來自后備軍官訓練團的優秀畢業生。

                 俄羅斯

                 真槍實彈不走過場

              “有些學生在練習組裝拆卸‘卡拉什尼科夫’自動步槍,另外一些學生在上摔跤課,還有一群學生在接受跳傘訓練——學習折疊降落傘以及著陸時的正確姿勢。”這是美聯社記者在俄羅斯葉卡捷琳堡采訪學生軍訓時的描述。報道稱,俄羅斯少年從10歲開始接受軍事訓練,學校組織學生軍訓的初衷,是激發低年級學生的愛國熱情,使其掌握最基本的軍事技能,以便順利過渡到高年級的軍訓必修課。

                 俄羅斯普通學校實施十一年一貫制,即共有11個年級,軍訓是中學課程《生命安全基礎》當中《兵役基礎》章節的延續。根據課程要求,所有10年級的男學生(年齡一般為15歲或16歲)都要在學校附近的軍事機構完成為期5天、總計40個課時的封閉式軍事集訓。據俄媒報道,參訓學生日常訓練一般從1萬米長跑開始,然后接受摔跤、格斗、舉重或其他軍事技能訓練。每天訓練的重頭戲是小分隊戰術對抗訓練。

                 另外,俄羅斯學生軍訓還特別強調真實性——訓練器材都上真家伙,訓練場地都是模擬真實戰場。比如俄羅斯國家級軍事主題公園——愛國者公園,就修建有逼真的戰壕和前線,還有一個游擊戰村,甚至按比例復制了一座“德國國會大廈”。俄國防部長紹伊古表示,上述設置目的是讓孩子們能夠在演習中攻打一個具體的地方。“今日俄羅斯”網站評論稱,艱苦的訓練環境和高度仿真的模擬實戰,在強化參訓學生體能的同時,還激發了他們的愛國主義情感和憂患意識。

                 英國

                 頂尖私立學校更重視軍訓

                 在英國一些頂尖私立中學(如伊頓公學、華威中學等)校園里,有時會看到一群身穿軍裝的“異類”呼嘯而過。《泰晤士報》報道稱,“請別懷疑他們的學生身份,他們只是在此之外還有另外一層身份——學生聯合軍訓團(CCF)隊員”。英國沒有強制性學生軍訓制度,但并未放松對青年學生的軍事技能和意志品質培養,CCF就是重要途徑之一。

                 CCF是英國國防部資助下的非官方項目,自1948年創建以來已在英國400多所中學設立分支。按規定,設在校園里的CCF分支會向本校年滿13周歲的學生敞開大門,每周都會組織隊員進行1至2次軍事訓練,學習并掌握基本軍事知識和技能,訓練內容包括軍事操練、射擊、野外生存、舟艇操作甚至飛行訓練等。隊員每年還會在近似實戰的訓練環境中上戰術課,并利用軍事基地的資源進行訓練,親身體驗軍旅生涯。《泰晤士報》認為,軍事訓練能鍛煉學生的社會責任感、領導力和自我管理能力,因此,英國頂尖私立學校比普通學校更重視軍訓。

                 考入大學后,學生們同樣會迎來“配套”軍訓項目。目前,英國國防部預備役局在英國11所大學設立有陸軍軍官訓練團、海軍訓練中心和空軍飛行中隊,對自愿參加的學生進行軍事訓練。據悉,大學軍官訓練團與大學社團類似,學生本著自愿原則加入,并在課余時間接受軍隊知識、軍事技能、團隊領導力等方面訓練。

                 參加軍訓的大學生可領取訓練費。其中部分學生與國防部簽訂參軍合同,并在學習期間享受由國防部支付學費、發放生活費的“福利”。不過,他們畢業后必須參軍,否則要如數退還所有學費和生活費。

                 印度

                 表現出色可獲總理表彰

                 印度青少年學生軍訓主要通過建立于1943年的國民學兵團完成。國民學兵團是一個以在校大學生和中學生為培養目標,并對他們進行國防教育和軍事訓練的國家級組織,是由印度國防部直接管理的二線預備役部隊,目前在印度一萬多所大中專院校設有分支,隊員數量超過百萬,司令由一名具有中將軍銜的高級軍官擔任。

                 國民學兵團加入門檻很低,大部分學生都可申請加入。成員按照年齡和性別分成初級班和高級班,每周至少參加4小時的軍訓課程,每年至少參加一次為期9至10天的訓練營,接受射擊、隊列、駕車、登山、滑雪、跳傘、野營、地圖判讀、軍事文書、野戰技能等方面的訓練。女學生的訓練內容更側重急救、基本護理、無線和有線通信以及民防知識等。

                 國民學兵團成員以加入“共和國日訓練營”為榮,入選該訓練營,就意味著可以在一年一度的國慶閱兵式上進行表演,表現出色者還能獲得總理頒發的“特別優秀學員獎”。據報道,國民學兵團旨在建立一支有組織、有紀律的隊伍,同時激勵學員未來加入武裝部隊。印度不少軍政官員都曾在國民學兵團接受軍訓,包括總理莫迪、前防長帕里卡爾等。

                 參加國民學兵團并非強制履行的義務,學生通常會根據自身喜好自愿申請加入,其成員最終也不一定加入武裝部隊。國民學兵團對青少年學生的吸引力,很大一部分來源于“看得見的好處”——如果能順利通過考核,會享有預約和保留工作的資格、額外加分和提升等優惠。

                 以色列

                 軍訓是學生必修課

                 在“全民皆兵”的以色列,國防教育和軍事訓練被列為青少年學生的必修課,由國防部下屬專門機構和人員負責實施。以色列政府認為,軍隊應扮演“國家學校”的角色,不僅要保持活力并提高戰斗力,還要培育國民的國防意識。為此,以軍總參謀部設立青年教育部,由一名上校牽頭,專門負責全國高中生的軍訓與國防教育。青年教育部在以色列各地設有分部或分支機構,由不同級別軍官負責,并在每所高中派駐一名軍士,負責學生軍訓具體事宜。

                 通常情況下,以色列學生軍訓會在寒暑假期間進行,為期一周左右,由各駐校軍士按統一計劃部署實施,訓練內容有40多項,包括隊列、步槍射擊、投彈、行軍以及徒手格斗等。基礎訓練外的特選課目訓練由各有關部隊臨時抽調人員承擔。每年接受軍訓的學生約有4萬名,經費全部由以色列國防部承擔,后者將為每名參訓學生免費提供兩套軍裝和一周的伙食費。軍訓結束時,學校會組織考核并邀請家長出席觀看。

                 值得一提的是,一些高中生為增加進入精銳特種部隊的機會,往往會報名參加私人培訓機構組織的“特別軍事訓練”。訓練中,組織者不僅會設立各種“殘忍”課目(比如在泥潭中摸爬滾打)以鍛煉參訓者的體魄、技能和意志,還會讓參訓者模擬特種作戰(比如打巷戰或房屋清剿),體驗真實戰場環境。

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