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          二維碼支付讓手機成為電子錢包,方便人們周游世界。

          2013年9月,湖北武漢一家公司組織幾位女士身著印有該公司二維碼的文化衫在街頭走秀,向公眾推介。 
            資料圖片

          一家公司推出的二維碼標識和卡通形象。

                 每天,你要用手機掃幾次二維碼?

            坐地鐵公交、騎共享單車,都需要刷碼;結識朋友加個微信,順手打開“掃一掃”;無論是路邊小攤還是高檔餐廳,結賬時都可以掃碼支付;想吃大閘蟹和新鮮農產品,掃掃二維碼就能隨時“查戶口”……

            毫無疑問,“掃碼時代”已經來了。如今,二維碼已涉及中國老百姓的吃穿住行,成為金融支付、身份識別、信息查詢等各類應用的載體。

            小小一枚二維碼,背后蘊藏著一項大產業。在5G方興未艾、萬物互聯已成大趨勢的背景下,二維碼的全球標準化已成為迫切的需求。

            作為全球二維碼大國,中國正在積極倡導和推動二維碼國際標準的建立。在日前于廣東佛山舉行的2019國際二維碼產業發展大會上,建立全球性的二維碼合作組織和編碼標準,成為與會各國代表的普遍共識。

            走向標準化,有了“國際護照”的二維碼,有望掃出新天地、暢行全世界。

            

            承載豐富 優勢多多

            在中國,二維碼有多火?中關村工信二維碼技術研究院院長張超說,我國二維碼應用已經占全球超九成。

            “從產業鏈的角度講,二維碼最起碼是萬億級的產業。中國雖然不是二維碼技術的發源地,但是已經成長為二維碼最大的應用國家。”張超說,

            黑白方寸之間,蘊含信息無數。經過加密和解密技術,黑白方塊組成的二維碼圖形可以記錄文字和數字信息,并通過光電掃描迅速識別以實現信息自動處理。據專家介紹,一個二維碼可容納多達1850個大寫字母、2710個數字或500多個漢字,將圖片、聲音、文字、指紋等信息數字化后進行存儲。

            與商品包裝上的條形碼等一維碼相比,二維碼的優勢眾多。一方面,二維碼的存儲容量比一維碼大,既能存儲數字、字母,又能存儲圖片、音頻、視頻。另一方面,二維碼的識讀效率和容錯機制也更好。

            “從理論上講,二維碼有20%的完整性就可以把整個信息讀取出來。一維碼稍微發生褶皺,就特別不容易讀出來。”張超表示。

            無處不在 “碼”行無阻

            正是基于這些特點,為二維碼在各領域的開疆拓土創造了條件。如今,二維碼的應用已不僅限于移動支付。作為物聯網核心感知技術、互聯網重要信息入口和大數據資源的重要獲取手段,二維碼在國民經濟的各個領域得到了廣泛應用和發展,不斷催生出新產業、新模式、新業態,成為全球數字經濟發展的新亮點。

            在交通領域,二維碼是智能交通創新和數字交通建設的重要內容,大大提高了我國交通運行管理和服務的智能化水平。

            今年北京發布的“智慧交通行動計劃”中,明確提出建設地面公交手機二維碼支付系統,實現公交、地鐵二維碼“一碼通乘”。對此,科技部原副部長吳忠澤表示,二維碼技術已經滲透到交通出行服務之中,帶來人們生活和工作方式的變革。

            “未來,二維碼技術將無處不在,在綜合交通運輸領域滿足公眾便捷使用、企業高效運行、政府精細管理方面發揮重要作用。”吳忠澤說。

            在智能城市建設過程中,二維碼是重要的載體。中國社科院城市發展研究會副理事長賀可嘉說,城市居民可以實現二維碼數字身份認證,解決數字生活問題;基于二維碼的數據共享能夠打通政府部門間的數據共享與使用,提高政府機構協作的便利性。

            “目前,我國已有多個重點城市智慧平臺、政務服務平臺的建設實現了二維碼技術應用落地。”賀可嘉說。

            推動傳統產業的轉型升級,二維碼也可以發揮橋梁紐帶的作用。“二維碼作為互聯網入口和智能標識載體,可率先從大規模定制、生產制造、物流倉儲等傳統產業切入,使標注上標準二維碼的產品可溯源、生產運輸銷售全過程的數據可獲取,通過智慧應用帶來的強示范效應,助推傳統產業轉型升級,并催生更多的新技術和新模式。”張超表示。

            標識萬物 應用廣泛

            進入5G時代,二維碼的作用將更加突出。

            中國電子商會會長王寧指出,二維碼作為互聯網,特別是移動互聯網的重要入口,正在滲透到國民經濟與社會生活的各個領域,受到了全球各國的高度重視。

            “目前,許多國家都在開發和研究二維碼的核心技術,對二維碼產業鏈的布局也正在逐漸形成。”王寧說。

            張超認為,隨著物聯網的發展,二維碼將成為“萬物的身份證”,并帶動相關產業的發展。“比如,未來要把二維碼放到更小的物體上去,這就需要更高端的設備;掃碼驗證需要更快速的識讀技術,這就離不開更高端的識讀芯片。圍繞二維碼,可以做成很多配套產業。”張超說。

            標準之痛 安全之憂

            不過,盡管前途光明,但在現階段,公眾對于二維碼還有不少擔憂,最突出的便是二維碼的安全性問題。使用二維碼支付遭遇盜刷、手機掃描虛假二維碼被植入木馬病毒等案例不時見諸報端。

            在張超看來,二維碼的安全問題主要源自于發行和識別問題。

            “二維碼的發行主體非常重要。如果發行主體是正規機構,相應來說安全性就會高。如果從網上隨便下載一個二維碼生成軟件,這個二維碼里面會不會有交易程序、木馬程序、隱藏病毒?這個我們就無法保證了。因此,我們需要統一的解碼識別標準。”張超表示。

            標準,是目前二維碼最大的“痛點”。據了解,盡管二維碼的應用發展已十分廣泛,但與一維碼不同,二維碼至今沒有一個統一的國際標準體系。這使得二維碼的應用存在“小、散、亂”現象,既存在安全、真偽等問題,也難以符合物聯網時代“一物一碼”的要求。

            張超用身份證和護照做了一個類比。“二維碼是‘萬物的身份證’,但身份證需要由公安部門來頒發才有真實性、權威性,不能自己給自己發身份證。同樣的,二維碼在全球通行需要‘護照’和編碼,因此需要建立一個國際認可的編碼組織。”

            王寧說,當前全球二維碼技術領域存在各國間標準多樣化、運行體系不統一、安全規范不協調等突出問題。如何商討共建二維碼產業國際合作組織、全球二維碼代碼發行管理機制和產業交流協同合作機制,已受到國際業界廣泛關注。

            國際協同 攜手治理

            可喜的是,二維碼國際標準的建立,已經“在路上”。

            2019國際二維碼產業發展大會期間,來自中國、法國、德國等14個國家的機構代表一致同意,正式成立國際二維碼產業合作組織籌備委員會,其國際標準體系建設邁出重要一步。

            “要想實現高質量發展,首先要制定高標準。”國際標準化組織(ISO)前主席張曉剛表示,標準是產業發展的基礎,是各領域互通的前提,也是國際間互認和合作的依據,一個協調統一的二維碼國際標準將有利于全球貿易一體化和便利化發展。

            據悉,為解決二維碼技術沒有統一的國際標準等問題,中關村工信二維碼技術研究院于2014年成立并發布了二維碼對象標識體系IDcode,開始建立二維碼標準規范體系和搭建相關的標識解析技術平臺。2018年,該院正式成為國際代碼發行機構,發行代碼為“MA”,可向全球用戶發放統一標準的二維碼標識。

            張超說,IDcode是唯一一個由中國倡導、面向全球發行的國際代碼,“MA”的全球解析和區塊鏈認證機制,可為現實世界的每一個物體分配一個全球唯一的二維碼身份標識,無法仿冒,解決了傳統二維碼技術存在碼制混亂、安全性差等問題,具有安全可信、互聯互通、成本低廉、應用場景豐富等優勢。目前,IDcode體系已經在中國、韓國、印度等全球幾十個國家使用。

            發布“碼標” 挺進夢想

            給每一條河每一座山取一個溫暖的名字——在二維碼時代,海子詩歌中的美好夢想已經成為現實。“用IDcode的編碼體系,我們可以給地球上每一粒沙子都分配一個二維碼。”張超說,發行機構統一制定標準、統一注冊發行,這樣才能夠保證所發出去的二維碼、使用到每一個物體上的二維碼的唯一性。

            在本屆國際二維碼產業發展大會上,二維碼的標準體系也有新進展:萬物互聯編碼標識命名系統“碼標”正式發布,面向全球開放服務。

            張超說,碼標與二維碼標識體系IDcode的關系類似于網站的域名和IP地址,碼標可以將二維碼標識的數字串轉化為直觀的文字語言呈現,并支持包括英語、漢語等語言。未來,碼標可廣泛應用于貿易流通、智能制造、網絡安全、產品追溯、城市管理、社會服務、醫療食品等領域,對于促進各國信息安全和數字化建設具有十分重要的意義。

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