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          河北省石家莊市的外賣小哥正在送餐。
            胡小龍攝(人民視覺)

          一份不到30元的外賣餐食,產生的垃圾包括4個餐盒、2套餐具、1個外包裝袋,其中,附贈的醋、糖等在丟棄時均未開封使用。
            本報記者 李 婕攝

           消費者點了約合常規2人分量的餐食,并在外賣訂單中備注“無需餐具”,但是送來的外賣里仍附帶了2套餐具。
            本報記者 李 婕攝

                 隨著手機下單叮咚一聲響,幾公里之外的餐廳后廚開始忙碌起來。快速盛裝、密封、打包,跟隨外賣“騎士”穿越城市街道,幾十分鐘后,美食即可抵達消費者手中。相關機構數據顯示,中國外賣用戶已超過3億人。圍繞外賣展開的這條產業讓許多人受益,包括前所未有的便利、規模龐大的就業、更加豐厚的利潤,但與此同時,也催生了超出想象的外賣垃圾——餐盒、餐具、紙巾、塑料膜、外包裝袋……這些究竟有多少?我們跟不同城市的消費者一起算了算賬。

            

            看數量:

            全國外賣用戶增長到3.58億,每份外賣中有多個一次性餐盒、餐具

            生活在北京的“90后”高陽是外賣的忠實用戶,幾乎每天都會點單。這天上午不到10時,高陽又打開手機APP,花24元點了一份肉夾饃和一碗餛飩。因為上午10時以前還屬這家店的早餐時段,價格更便宜,高陽特地提早下單。對于如何更省錢,這位老主顧已經了然于心。

            大概半小時之后,外賣順利送到了,食物連同各式包裝在眼前展開:外包裝是商家自行設計的紙質袋,打開袋子,一碗餛飩用紙碗裝著,上面有塑料封口蓋子;肉夾饃則是內面有塑料質地薄膜的紙質包裝;還有一份用紙料密封的餐具,里面裝有木質的筷子、原木材質的紙巾、塑料白勺子、牙簽和無糖薄荷糖。

            全部吃完后,高陽特地留意了一下,雖然食物就是簡單的肉夾饃和餛飩,但垃圾的數量卻不少:木質的筷子、牙簽;紙質的所有外包裝、餐盒、紙巾;塑料的蓋子、勺子,有些甚至沒有使用的,比如牙簽和多余的紙巾,但都統統進了垃圾桶。

            點的外賣多了,高陽見過各式各樣的包裝,差別主要在餐盒。“一般根據食物的類型,不同商家會采用不同的包裝方式。”高陽說,比如煲仔飯會用錫紙盒,外面再加一層卡紙包裹住;餃子怕粘連,包裝盒里就會有許多塑料小格,還分上下層;粥品之類的流食溫度高,會用防水的紙質材料;而奶茶之類飲品除了飲料盒子之外還會送奶茶托,塑料、紙料材質不一……

            餐盒、餐具、外包裝袋,伴隨每一次外賣下單,都會產生這樣一包垃圾,考慮巨大的外賣用戶基數,規模更是不可小覷。

            根據艾媒咨詢的報告,截至2018年,全國的外賣用戶已增長到3.58億,整個外賣市場已突破2400億元。此前,幾大外賣平臺數據顯示外賣平均客單價已超出40元,若以此粗略估計,2018年全國每天送出外賣超千萬份,則每日送達消費者手中的餐盒等包裝數量也是千萬級別。

            北京盒利活環保科技有限公司創始人鄭亦興介紹,根據他所在公司的實地統計,每份外賣中至少有3個一次性塑料餐盒。他們公司曾經跟北京一座寫字樓下的拾荒者合作,把每天從物業收過來的垃圾進行分揀,結果發現,寫字樓產生的生活垃圾中,外賣垃圾的重量比例至少占40%,有的甚至達到50%,體積占比能達到60%-70%。

            看材質:

            砂鍋、瓷盤等材質的包裝越來越多出現,但消費者對多次利用存疑慮

            隨著外賣行業的發展,商家開始在餐盒包裝上做改良。

            在上海工作的白領羅茂林最近點了一次撈飯,單價不到30元,送到后發現竟然是砂鍋包裝。在外賣平臺上查詢這家主打食補撈飯的店,頁面上詳細介紹了選用砂鍋包裝的原因。商家稱,一方面,土燒的容器可以無害降解,更環保;另一方面,避免高溫熬制的滾湯倒入塑料包裝可能導致的食物不安全。同時,商家還特別標明“商品不額外收取包裝費”。

            點餐時,這家店在外賣平臺上顯示的包裝費的確只有2元。但作為消費者,羅茂林卻有不一樣的看法:“羊毛出在羊身上,砂鍋的價錢也得折進餐費里。”據業內人士介紹,商家入駐平臺確認包裝價格時,需要拍攝餐食的圖片,然后選擇是否需要單獨的餐盒,若需要,平臺系統會顯示不同的價格選項,目前一個包裝價格大多在1-2元。若商家選用的包裝價值超出平臺顯示的價格,在用戶端也不會有所顯示,但“商家總不會做虧本生意”。

            在采訪中,不少消費者表示收到過砂鍋、瓷盤、玻璃瓶等材質包裝的外賣,因為看起來價值更高、屬于反復利用類容器,有的還跟商家確認是否需要回收,有的則認為棄之可惜,但長期使用也不放心。

            在北京一家律所工作的申啟慧發現,包裝的“豪華”程度和外賣價格直接相關。如果是海參、鮑魚等價格相對較高的食品,一般會用砂鍋或玻璃質地的容器,餐具也是鐵質的,看起來質感更好。但因為這些餐具容易破裂,所以外面會加防震包裝或用質地較硬的卡紙嚴實包裹,這樣一來,又增加了額外的包裝材料。不少消費者表示,這些餐具使用一次未免浪費,但即便當時留下來二次使用,時間稍長也往往就扔掉了,“畢竟不是自己買的,不放心”。

            的確有外賣員再次造訪回收餐具的情況,但屬于少數。廣州白領錢榛曾點過某品牌火鍋店的外賣,迎來的是包送全套服務的外賣小哥。只見外賣員背著一個大箱子上門,里面不僅有盛放火鍋食材的餐盒和餐具,還有鍋、電磁爐、排插和塑料桌布。“一進門外賣小哥就幫著把塑料桌布鋪好,吃完火鍋后,只需要把鍋、電磁爐、餐盒等所有東西裝進箱子放到門口,外賣小哥會按照提前預約好的時間來回收。”對于這樣的一次外賣服務,所有商品均標注“不額外收取包裝費”,但提供給顧客的鍋具、爐具會收取50元的使用、回收和清洗費用。

            看處置:

            餐盒、餐具、外包裝需減量,平臺、商家均可更有作為,垃圾分類帶來利好

            如何能在外賣垃圾減量上有所助力?針對筷子、勺子等餐具,不少平臺推出了自動勾選是否需要餐具的選項,但實際使用中,普遍存在問題。

            “餐具可以自己準備,反復利用,這是很容易實現的事情。”在上海實習的張天說,但是經常會出現在外賣平臺上勾選不要餐具、最后仍送來餐具的情況,根據餐食的總量,有時候還會送來好幾套餐具,沒用過的,最后也都扔掉了。

            在北京、上海、廣州、深圳等不同地方,消費者普遍反映存在這一問題。據業內人士介紹,在很多商家門店,外賣包裝都是提前搭配準備好的,尤其在午餐時段,可能2小時內要出三四百份外賣,為了趕單,商家往往不會一一區分哪些需要餐具,哪些不要餐具。“雖然一份兩份看起來不花時間,但積少成多,當訂單集中到達時,商家根本顧不上這些。”這也導致在不少地方,是否勾選餐具選項形同虛設。

            而在餐盒方面,不少消費者表示,因為食物要經過幾公里的運輸,餐盒等容器和外包裝必不可少,但是商家可以盡量避免過度包裝。“比如有時候為了防止漏灑,商家會在餐盒外面纏很多層保鮮膜,怎么都解不開,既浪費材料造成環境污染,也帶來很大的不方便。”高陽說。此外,還有一些類似腰封、過度厚實的一次性塑料餐盒、餐具包裝等,觀賞功能也大于使用價值。

            在鄭亦興看來,目前產生的大量外賣垃圾問題,尤其是餐盒,尚沒有很好的替代和解決方案,但是產業鏈上各方還有努力的空間。一方面,平臺可以進行更嚴格的環保控制,包括為用戶提供對商家在環保方面表現的反饋途徑,如是否按需不送餐具等,還可以將對商家的環保考評作為一項排名指標,引導商家和消費者選擇更環保的用餐方式;另一方面,商家要更嚴格地自我約束,包括為顧客提供更安全的食物包裝等。

            對于大量的外賣垃圾如何進一步回收利用,市場上已經陸續出現一些專門的機構和企業。過去,在回收過程中,外賣餐盒中的餐余、水分、油脂等容易污染其它可回收物,從而使其失去再生利用的價值,或帶來過高的處理成本。不過,自從上海在全國首先實行垃圾分類,外賣垃圾的回收與再利用也被認為燃起了“新的希望”。

           

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