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               有一年,陜西省周至縣的水果滯銷,農戶不得不把果樹砍掉,抱著孩子的農村婦女無奈痛哭。95后的重慶姑娘田義看到這一幕又難受又無奈。因為在之前的創業中結識了一些國際水果采購商,她決定將楊凌示范區的蔬菜和水果出口到東南亞和中東,為此她從西北農林大學休學創業兩年。

            一批年輕人正在去鄉村大展身手,挖掘隱藏在土地里的機會。中國青年報社創業周刊與KAB全國推廣辦公室近日聯合開展調研,深入采訪了全國多位大學生鄉村創業者,傾聽他們創業的酸甜苦辣。

            物流難、農戶誠信度低、合作者專業度差、意想不到的天災、擴張速度慢等問題是他們的“真煩惱”,但他們也收獲了努力帶來的“小歡喜”。

            曾經“巴不得把農具摔了”的年輕人又回到了鄉村

            田義的家境比較貧困,2015年她考入大學后,家里就不再給生活費,她為生計開始創業。西北農林大學坐落在中國馳名中外的“農科城”楊凌農業高新技術產業示范區,最初,她作為代辦主要幫助外省的采購者對接農戶,機緣巧合認識了一些國際采購商。

            一次,田義跟著老師去周至縣講課,發現當地的水果滯銷,一些農戶沒有收成生活窘迫。田義把這件事放在了心上。第二年,她從3月開始策劃,引進客商,推薦產品,在5月18日收購的時候提升收購價,讓農戶獲得了實實在在的利益。

            與此同時,田義在陜西、山西種蘋果的農戶中走訪,了解不同產地蘋果的品質,并介紹給相應的客戶。因為口碑不錯,她的創業項目從2016年上半年開始自給自足,下半年就小有名氣,如今她的水果更是遠銷到東南亞和中東。

            遼寧科技大學畢業生梁翰琦學的是時尚的廣告專業,他卻回到家鄉鞍山種植君子蘭。父母一開始不支持,不認同他“上了大學,不干本行還回農村”,但最終還是相信孩子的選擇,并湊了30萬元啟動資金。

            這個選擇是梁翰琦認真考慮過的。30萬元在廣告業只能開一個打印社,在鄉村卻能租好幾個大棚。他并不羨慕留在大城市的同學,“大有大城市的煩惱,小城市有小城市的發展”。

            鞍山是出名的君子蘭種植地,大部分商戶種植種類多卻并不專注,梁翰琦調研后選擇專注于小苗種植。他分析,因為“育苗是最掙錢也是科技含量最高的”,比如種一棵君子蘭小苗的成功率是95%,那種植1萬棵的成活率能達到70%~80%就相當厲害,因為大面積種植會遇到病蟲害、交叉感染等問題。

            種植7年后,梁翰琦的鞍山金田華晟君子蘭專業合作社已經成為遼寧省最大的君子蘭種苗基地,年產量達到30萬棵。他被評為鞍山市首批農業實用人才,是10位獲評者中年齡最小的人,還靠自己的收入買車買房。

            農分期創始人兼CEO周建是干著農活兒長大的,在18歲離開農村時曾經“巴不得把農具摔了”,再也不回來了。可后來,他聽不少種田大戶的“吐槽”:試圖擴張規模的他們常被賒銷和資金鏈困住了手腳,一年投資下去,更新一臺農機都是奢望。同時,還要面對銀行借貸流程的繁瑣,一拖一慢之間,往往就誤了農時。

            這些“樸素的”煩惱觸動到了周建。2013年,周建創立“農分期”,公司專注土地規模化種植領域,集中于農機、農資市場,圍繞農業生產各個環節,向可規模化經營的農戶群體提供金融服務。

            周建說:“我們創始團隊都是來自互聯網領域,但是都是出身農村,所以對農業生產的變化感知明顯,當時發現土地種植開始快速規模化,家庭農場、種植大戶大量出現,小農經營逐漸萎縮。農業生產方式的變化一定會帶來農業種植整個產業鏈的重造,這是一個空前的機會和時間窗口期。所以我們團隊全力投入到以服務規模化農業經營者為主要經營方向的創業中來。”

            “天災來臨我賣掉了祖宅”

            許鑫瀚出生于杭州主城區的一個中產家庭,2012年畢業于浙江財經大學東方學院會計學專業,曾就職于會計師事務所,現任杭州三葉青農業科技有限公司董事長。三葉青又名金線吊葫蘆,全草均可入藥,民間主要用于治療小兒咳嗽高熱、炎癥、結節等,近年來現代醫學研究發現其有一定的抗癌功效。

            這件事對許鑫瀚的觸動很大,他覺得種植三葉青應該是一個有前景的創業方向。他邀請了浙江大學生命科學學院、浙江理工大學生命科學學院的專家擔任技術顧問,并將自己的種植園申請成為上述兩所高等院校的教學與研究基地。同時,他還用所學的金融學知識,給自己的三葉青種植方案制定了可行性融資計劃。在父母的幫助下,2009年,他成功向親朋“融資”100萬元,在杭州余杭承包了50畝地。

            因為管理得當,原本畝產僅50公斤的三葉青,產量翻了3倍,2013年種植規模也從50畝擴大至550畝。這些三葉青正好符合有140年歷史的“江南藥王”胡慶余堂的需求,很快達成品牌戰略合作,成為胡慶余堂三葉青粉劑的獨家原藥合作商。

            創業并不順風順水,農業的投入超乎許鑫瀚的設想,天災也不期而至。他清楚地記得2012年山洪暴發那天是9月7日,農田里的排水溝渠全部被沖毀,三葉青田被泥石流淹毀近10畝,其中5畝多完全絕收,按市場價核算損失近百萬元。2013年夏天,當地又將近60天沒有降雨,三葉青田受災面積近百畝,絕收近15畝,按市場價核算損失300多萬元,直接影響后面兩年的種苗繁育和生產計劃。

            連年的自然災害對于許鑫瀚來講,無疑是致命的打擊。由于三葉青屬于小眾作物,享受不了農業保險,許鑫瀚只能自籌資金周轉。父母為了支持他,在2012年賣掉了杭州市主城區祖傳的房子,2013年他又向外股權融資215萬元。

            自然災害對三葉青種植的影響直到2015年年初才基本緩解,三葉青的種植才再次走向正軌。

            除了難以抵擋的天災,鄉村創業還有很多意想不到的困難。以農分期為例,其營利模式是通過金融工具撬動農資產業鏈,在流通環節獲取農資銷售收益和廠家返點。所以,農分期的團隊當時需要面對的,是一群平均年齡47歲、智能手機普及率只有30%的種田大戶。

            團隊用了“最土最笨”的辦法,他們頂著烈日,冒著大雨,“把雙手雙腳都插到泥土里去”,大海撈針式地尋找客戶。那些年輕人都“曬黑了好幾度”,但最后靠著真誠打動了這些農戶。有時候為了打消他們的疑慮,團隊的年輕人還會專門把簽訂合約的地方定在派出所或是村委會,讓第三方參與見證。

            這一點和田義的思路異曲同工。田義在最初收購時采取的整個村全部收購的形式,但部分農戶只看眼前利益不顧誠信,承諾的品質和實際出貨的品質不一樣。她只能找當地最大的合作社合作,并請縣政府擔保,利用他們對農戶的威懾力保障品質。

            一個問題剛解決,另一個問題又冒出來。合作社的付款機制多為現付,但貨品發到國外,如果驗貨不合格,自己就要承擔損失,風險很大,如果田義要求合作社驗貨后付款,又會影響合作者的現金流轉。

            為了解決這個問題,田義請教了很多投行的朋友,又到多個東南亞國家的商會、銀行、保險公司等金融機構洽談,最終找到了獨一無二的金融解決辦法。“通過銀行、保險公司等金融擔保機構,讓合作社先拿到人工、包裝等費用,國外驗貨無誤后再支付尾款,使得各個環節得到保障。如果出現問題,就由擔保機構與合作社交涉,把風險降到最低”。

            類似的問題還有很多,生活在鄉村的人風險意識亟待提高,對品質的要求并不夠堅定。比如在和某個鄉村的供貨商溝通時,田義希望對方能夠去產地驗貨保證品質,供貨商卻認為很麻煩,不值得花這筆差旅費用。

            “土味項目”難以吸引投資人眼光

            剛去外地談業務時,梁翰琦看上去就像個孩子,叫別人“叔、姨”,自己被稱呼為“小梁”,客戶都看不上自己。他也曾通過印傳單、印圍裙宣傳,花了不少錢,效果卻不好,大城市的廣告戰在這里并不適用。只有口碑是最好的廣告詞,一年后,不少客戶成了自發的推廣者。

            梁翰琦最自豪的是成了當地的致富帶頭人,改變了當地農戶的經濟和健康狀況。當地原本是香菇產業基地,但香菇需要凌晨三四點采摘,采摘者還易患咳嗽。農戶們看到他掙錢后,也加入進來一起種植君子蘭。

            “我也希望有天使輪、A輪融資,但是沒人投。”梁翰琦曾參加過不少創業大賽的路演,但得到的評價往往是“模式很健康,但難以賺大錢”。每當“土味項目”和高科技項目同臺競技,前者總是難以吸引投資人的目光。他也曾考慮向銀行貸款擴大規模,但銀行并不認可大棚為抵押物。

            梁翰琦很清楚,自己的生意是“汗珠子掉地摔八瓣”的生意,常常提醒自己不要眼高手低,“不要看韓劇看得太多,生活中沒有那么多王子公主,還是要穩扎穩打”。

            缺錢是所有創業者面臨的問題,但融資難在鄉村格外突出。農分期在融資時也歷經波折。農業生產的利潤薄,農戶的戶均貸款額度低,可承受的貸款利率也相對低,沒有金融機構愿意做這樣的業務。為此,農分期業務在2016年4月幾乎停滯。最后他們與云南信托銀行達成協議,這是第一家愿意給農戶提供資金的持牌金融機構。幸運的是,2018年年初,農分期完成數億元C輪融資。

            許鑫瀚表示:“農業創業不僅融資困難,土地權限保障也有隱患,此外還有政策性風險,城鄉思維差異極大也帶來很大問題。希望政府出臺農業融資政策,土地確權和使用權穩定,為切實需要的農業企業提供農業生產用地(建設用地),在可以的情況下做好農商對接。”

            此外,人才招聘是創業公司的大難題,鄉村創業尤其如此。由于行業偏見,無論是剛畢業的大學生,還是有成熟工作經驗的群體都不愿意進入農業領域,業內優秀高級管理人員匱乏。周建說:“從事農業領域創業后才發現,這個領域多么缺少有經驗、能堅持的年輕人,所以我們只能大量招聘應屆畢業生,進行培養,目前我們的骨干員工都是早期一手培養的應屆畢業生。”

            周建希望,國家在支持農業人才隊伍建設上增加投入。此外,農業行業區域差異較大,同行之間相對獨立,創業者之間的交流和溝通機會較少,“其實很多經驗和教訓可以互通有無,但目前缺少平臺和機會”。

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