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               “遺子黃金滿籝,不如一經。”這句話說明了閱讀對一個人的重要程度。在不少父母看來,如果孩子在兒童階段就養成良好的閱讀習慣,將終生受益。不過,記者近日在調查中卻發現,面對豐富的童書品類,相當一部分家長存在著如何為孩子選書的困惑。

            有出版業業內人士認為,家長們對如何選擇童書的擔心,某種程度上,其實折射出的是對“分級閱讀”問題的關注。

            那么,什么是“分級閱讀”?童書的分級細化閱讀,真的有必要嗎?

          本屆圖博會上豐富多樣的童書。上官云 攝

              家長們的“選書難題”

            8月21日,第26屆北京國際圖書博覽會如期舉行。展會期間,琳瑯滿目的童書吸引了許多大小讀者的目光。不過,也有不止一位家長向記者表示,現在怎么給孩子選合適的童書,成了難題。

            擔心書籍內容恐怖會嚇到孩子,這是問題之一。此前,有媒體報道,有一部《恐怖童謠》,也是正規出版物,名字里雖然帶有“童謠”二字,但書籍上卻并未標記是少兒讀物,內容則含有拋尸、殺人等情節。

            “現在的家長普遍工作都很忙,真正全職在家帶孩子的應該是很少一部分。如果書店里有上述書籍的話,可能很難分辨。”吳菲說。

            另外一個問題,就是“什么樣的童書適合什么年齡段孩子閱讀”的問題。比起“恐怖內容”,這似乎更令人撓頭,畢竟前者在購書時細心些就能基本解決問題,但后者,可能需要家長需要一定的鑒別水準。

            “我身邊一些家長擔心書選得不合適,影響孩子學知識。”吳菲偶爾會參照一些童書封面上標注的“推薦閱讀年齡”,“但不知道這是不是權威分類。所以我們比較期待一個合理的童書分級閱讀標準”。

              “數理思維培養書系”圖書封面上,清晰的印著適讀年齡“3~6”歲。天天出版社供圖

            早前,中國青年報社社會調查中心聯合問卷網,對2026名受訪者進行的一項調查顯示,為兒童挑選圖書時,56.0%的受訪者感到困難,72.7%的受訪者表示需要國家有關方面制定參考標準。

            什么是分級閱讀?

            所謂“分級閱讀”,一般是指依據少年兒童不同年齡段的智力和心理發育指標進行閱讀活動的層級劃分和科學設計。

            據說,這個提法最早起源于美國,至今已有將近70年的歷史。后來,分級閱讀的理念開始進入中國大陸,并漸漸受到出版界和研究界的重視。

            接力出版社總編輯白冰關注分級閱讀多年。他表示,盡管2011年頒布的《中國兒童發展綱要(2011——2020)》提出“推廣面向兒童的圖書分級制”,但當前國內對于分級閱讀的研究確實不夠。

            “目前,中國從事兒童分級閱讀研究的專業機構不多,大多是非政府研究機構。而且研究成果難共享,研究資源難整合。”白冰說。

            童書分級閱讀,是否有必要?

            雖然有家長期待能有閱讀分級標準,為選書提供參考、讓孩子讀到合適的內容。但也有人認為,童書的分級閱讀,其實沒必要。


          資料圖:上官云 攝

              “每個家長也是從孩童時代走過來的,什么樣的書適合什么年齡的孩子閱讀,心里應該有數,在選書時多翻翻內容,稍加留心即可。”在為兒子選書時,劉軒傾向于選擇大社、名社出版的經典作品,“經過許多代讀者篩選,質量會有保證”。

            相反,他還認為,即使有分級閱讀的標準,每個孩子情況不同,這個標準的參考價值不大,“有的孩子天賦比較好,可能在六七歲就能看懂更深點的內容,如果非要參考分級標準只給他看‘六七歲合適的書’,沒準會扼殺孩子的興趣,何苦去限制他們的思維?”

            對劉軒的觀點,吳菲并不十分認同。她表示,如果有一個比較細的分級閱讀標準,能夠幫父母迅速縮小購書范圍,節約家長時間,而且,一本好書不一定就適合兒童閱讀,所以,童書的分級閱讀,很有必要。

            “現在我們的出版的童書,大都會印有‘建議XX歲孩子閱讀’字樣。但據我了解,目前國內并沒有一個統一的、有影響的童書分級閱讀標準,各個閱讀組織或出版機構是‘各自為戰’,其中一些分級標準,還是有待商榷的。”閱讀推廣人袁曉峰表示。

            “分級”不能使孩子閱讀受限

            不過,在白冰看來,童書分級閱讀并不是多此一舉。


          圖博會上展示的一些童書。上官云 攝

              “童書分級的意義,在于有計劃的給孩子提供合適的書籍,這樣孩子可以比較快地接受書中的知識,覺得有趣味,從而培養起鑒賞能力和好的閱讀習慣。”白冰說,童書分級是難易分級,而不是內容分級,這跟電影分級不一樣。

            對分級標準,白冰認為,比較合理童書分級,它不能使閱讀受限。分級要綜合考慮到孩子年齡、閱讀能力等方面的不同,按照普遍閱讀規律來劃定一個大致范圍,最終的目的是促進閱讀,而不是限制孩子的閱讀興趣和思維能力。

            他說,童書分級要避開誤區,這不是制定一個刻板的標準,“我們的出版業、新華書店系統等,都可以提倡分級創意、分級推廣等等,這樣會為讀者提供很多閱讀上的便利”。

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