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                 “今年上半年KET、PET考試(劍橋通用英語考試)太火爆, 7秒內名額就沒了!下半年的報名已經開始了,我又沒有幫女兒‘秒’到考位!”暑假尾聲,南京家長陳先生因為沒有幫女兒搶到考位而自責。像他這樣的家長不在少數,記者調查中了解到,很多南京的家長準備再去離江蘇距離較遠的省份報名試一試。英語考試緣何如此火爆?記者調查中了解到,近年來隨著奧數遇冷,英語類、信息類考級不斷升溫,不少家長坦言,不是自己心態盲目,而是這些證書的確還是會成為升學的隱性“敲門磚”。

            奧數遇冷

            英語信息考級持續升溫

            近年來,國家三令五申,嚴格禁止將奧數作為義務教育階段升學與入學的依據。今年6月底,南京外國語學校“小升初”面測試題不涉及奧數題目。

            奧數遇冷,英語、信息等考級、考證熱卻持續升溫。“雖然學校不會明文要求‘證書’,但我們家長都認為,英語、信息等權威證書是名校的‘敲門磚’,也是升入理想學校的‘砝碼’。”陳先生接受記者采訪時說。“多證在手,升學不慌。”陳先生的話反映出很多家長的心聲。

            8月16日,一則全國青少年信息學奧林匹克聯賽(普及組及提高組)從2019年起暫停的消息引來了不少家長關注。“剛看到這個消息后,我們微信群內一片恐慌,但是后來教練讓大家安心,說這個賽事將以考級的形式繼續存在,我們就定心了!”南京專注于信息學競賽的孩子有一個圈子,丁女士就是其中的家長之一,她的孩子五年級時獲得信息奧賽江蘇賽區一等獎,在今年的“小升初”中也憑借信息學特長被南京一所名校優錄。

            全國青少年信息學奧林匹克聯賽簡稱NOIP,是目前五大學科競賽之一,其它四個學科分別為數學、物理、化學、生物。獲得NOIP獎項的部分高中生可以獲得保送和參加高校自主招生、降分錄取的資格,申請國外一流大學也相當有用。

            有需求就有市場。省教育廳近日披露的最新數據顯示,全省中小學學科類校外培訓機構一度達1.7萬家,其中有不少劣質培訓機構“魚目混珠”。試想一下,這么多培訓機構會頒發多少證書,拿到這海量證書的孩子們,有多少是真正出于興趣而學?

            課外培訓本身并沒有錯,錯在于將興趣培養變味成“套路”和無法辨別真假的“敲門磚”。“美國也有奧數,但培養學生是從興趣出發的,而不是以此為名校的敲門磚。中國的奧數培訓模式下,孩子只能解決奧數問題,讓這個原本是為提高孩子思維能力和學習素養的培訓變了樣。”國際知名數學家、菲爾茲獎獲得者丘成桐院士的說法一針見血。而記者調查中發現,目前,家長和學生對英語類、信息類培訓和考級的熱情,令人擔心是否會演變為新一輪的“奧賽熱”。

            讓興趣做主

            “敲門磚”能成為“啟智棒”

            事實上,課外培訓不必“一棍子打死”。南京師范大學教育科學學院兒童發展與家庭教育研究中心副主任殷飛告訴記者,讓孩子參加課外培訓或許可以幫助他們了解自己對哪些學科感興趣,所獲得的證書也可以成為孩子們人生的“啟智棒”。很多孩子并不是生來就在某一領域有天分,而是在某一領域持續投入了精力,幫助他們取得了成功。“打個比方,如果孩子在競賽方面取得了成功,那么他可能會因為滿足感喜歡上競賽,驅使他們產生更濃厚的興趣,又不斷努力取得不錯的成績。”

            畢業于東南大學信息科學與工程學院的李悅,也曾經歷過那個“被奧賽追逐”的時期。在東大自主招生政策下,各類奧賽培訓取得的成績幫助他順利跨入高校大門。“雖然奧賽題無論難度還是思維方式,都和平時教學有很大不同,但對自身邏輯思維和以后的理科學習還是很有幫助的。”李悅也提到了身邊許多并不適合參加奧賽,卻受環境影響而參加的同學,“他們參加奧賽很大程度成了應試的一部分,而非出于個人興趣。全民奧賽的浪潮既浪費了很多資源,也占用了師生很多時間,甚至導致一些人對學習失去興趣。”

            奧賽的經驗教訓,同樣適用于如今的英語考級和信息競賽。南京一教育人士表示:“對于高中生來說,競賽起步的早晚與能否成功沒有百分之百的聯系。”而家長則表示無奈,誰都想讓孩子在興趣中快樂成長,但目前優質教育資源緊缺,如果這類權威證書仍能發揮“敲門磚”的作用,他們還是會幫孩子報考。

            立體式培養

            加強校內啟智類課外培訓

            在校外各類培訓如火如荼的同時,校內的啟智類課外培訓亦不可缺位。北京大學教授渠敬東曾在多個場合表示,當前教育呈現出的“雙軌制”某種程度上增加了家庭不必要的支出和負擔。一方面,中小學校對學生的培養目標正在不斷降低;另一方面,教育讓位給了校外輔導班,市場化經營的教育企業,導致每一個家庭對孩子的教育投資比例也越來越高。

            記者調查中了解到,江蘇中小學近年來在積極增強校內啟智類選修課程和培訓的力度。2015年,江蘇省教育廳、省科協聯合發布通知,確定一批學校先行先試STEM教育。2017年,全省STEM教育實踐進入新階段。STEM教育旨在培養孩子的科學(Science)、技術(Technology)、工程(Engineering)和數學(Maths)素養。最初的倡議只有四個字母STEM,近期則加入了人文藝術(Arts),擴充為STEAM。

            南京市小行小學因地制宜開發了地鐵STEAM課程作為特色校本課程,貫穿各個年級,通過課程、社團、實踐活動、科技節立體培養孩子們的綜合能力。低年級的孩子主要進行地鐵文化的認識和滲透,中年級的孩子圍繞項目進行建模等任務,高年級的孩子更多是接觸智能化等技術解決問題。在南京師范大學附屬小學,孩子們通過STEM項目嘗試開發《博物館之夜》等主題課程,以及Arduino和3D打印技術課程;南京外國語學校由于對STEM課程的加強,也成為一家國際知名科技公司在中國首批試點Swift語言教學的試點學校。

            記者調查中也發現,盡管校內的啟智類課外培訓在不斷豐富,但寒暑假期間仍處于半缺位狀態,而市場類的校外培訓班,則填補了假期的巨大需求。如何在寒暑假期間,適度增設夏令營類能夠引起孩子興趣的“額外服務”,或許是教育部門和學校值得探索和努力的方向。

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