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                 立秋一過,不少地方的天氣多了一絲涼意。不過,這點涼風吹不進大大小小的培訓機構。在這些地方,補習的高溫肆虐,出入這里的孩子們沒有暑假。小學剛畢業的孟璐璐就是其中一員。盡管拿到了令人艷羨的北京東城區一所重點中學的“通行證”,這個暑假的培訓班課程表卻排得滿滿當當。

            從去年至今,盡管教育部門頻出重拳,整治規范培訓機構,不過,違規補課依然在各地不同程度地存在,暑假補課之風如火如荼。而這其中,不乏像孟璐璐一樣成績優秀的孩子。

            為何成績越好的孩子越熱衷培訓?這背后僅僅是因為培訓機構在販賣焦慮以及家長的著急心態在推波助瀾嗎?

            “如果不培優,你參加名校‘海選’大概率就是分母”

            早晨8點鐘,孟璐璐和媽媽一起擠進人潮洶涌的地鐵,她們的目的地是號稱“宇宙補習中心”的海淀黃莊。

            從黃莊地鐵站向東200米,是駐扎著新東方、學而思、啟德教育等數十家知名教育培訓機構的銀網大廈。9點一過,這里的幾部電梯間擠滿前來補習的中小學生。

            語文、數學、英語,都在孟璐璐的課表上。她開玩笑地對記者說,“這是十全大補。”拿到目標校入學通知并不意味著可以肆意地過個快樂假期。璐璐媽媽告訴記者,學校初一新生入學考試后會根據成績篩選出兩個實驗班,配備最好的師資,“這是一場關鍵戰役,要是考不上實驗班,分到平行班的話,那就太糟糕了。”

            李俊(化名)報的培訓班是銀網中心旁邊理想大廈的高思,他和孟璐璐,這兩個同齡人可能經常在地鐵行色匆匆,擦肩而過。

            因為家住石景山,父母對這個區的初中都不太滿意。所以,李俊早在三年級就踏上培訓班培優之路,目標是為了跨區擇校。在今年五月底,李俊參加了號稱“海淀六小強”之一的一所重點中學的全市大海選,在1.5萬多名考生中脫穎而出,成為幸運者。這之后一個月,他的學習強度不斷加大,其中數學還在一家機構請名師一對一強化教育了10天,一次課費用高達千元。這一切都為了學校的分班考,這所學校的實驗班是“2+4”學制,按照父母的說法,“考上實驗班直升高中,不用參加中考,你就不用那么累了。”

            李俊如愿考上了實驗班,卻沒有放松下來,學校開家長會請家長簽約,重點強調這群尖子生第一年還有一定的淘汰率。“你四周都是高手,稍有懈怠就可能落后。不能放松,真的不能放松。”李俊推推近視眼鏡,話語間有著與他年齡不相稱的老成。

            連日來,記者在多家培訓機構教室外采訪了多名家長,很多人表示,自家孩子成績不錯,讓孩子參加學科類培訓主要為了升學擇校。

            7月份,北京一所重點中學的校門口舉行“早培班”選拔,這是京城“牛娃”家長眼中夏季規模最大的“海選”。據媒體透露,這場選拔的實際錄取名額為200人,參與人數卻已過萬。

            “如果不培優,你參加名校‘海選’大概率就是分母。”有家長如是說。

            舍得花錢、花時間陪伴只是“牛娃”家長的最低配任務?

            最近半個月,讀初二的女兒和幾位同學去美國游學,黃莉卻沒有歇口氣,反而累得疲憊不堪。

            “孩子辛苦一學期,做父母的支持她適當放松下,走出國門,開闊視野。但是,媽媽這一角色是不能停歇的。”黃莉對記者講道,女兒出去半個月不學習,擔心她開學后成績有所下滑。所以,該報的課不能停,女兒不上她去上。為此,每天下午6點下班后她一路小跑趕地鐵,刷卡進培訓班教室,認真聽講做筆記,等著女兒回來補課。周末更是上午下午連軸轉,上完4節課累得頭暈眼花。

            “孩子馬上升初三了,中考差一分能差出好幾百名學生,哪里敢松懈?”黃莉堅信,沒有好成績,什么美好規劃都是空中樓閣。為此,她省吃儉用,但是,給女兒報班一年花費10萬多元,卻從不含糊。

            從20年前開始,補課從零星的行為,發展成為一場普遍行動,補課也不再是補不足的概念。今天輔導班一個很大的補課份額是超前學習,培優,市面上各種各樣圍繞K-12教育(小學、初中、高中)設置的培訓機構如同優秀學生加工廠,源源不斷地批量輸出有著漂亮成績單的學生。他們也在接受著“市場”的檢驗——培養出足夠多學生進入大中城市有限的重點中學,好口碑會不脛而走。

            機構有了好口碑就不愁發展壯大。對于很多大中城市的父母來說,孩子的教育支出沒有上限。尤其在暑假,一些家長希望能夠給孩子進行集中培訓,實現“彎道超車”,不惜花費七八千甚至幾萬元。

            在部分家長看來,輔導班的小班化、分層化教學,是彌補公辦學校應試教育不足的一種無奈的必選項。

            8月12日,銀網中心一家培訓機構的工作人員告訴記者,很多家長都是提前兩個月報暑期班,現在有些名師秋季班名額也有限,“再猶豫名額就沒有了”。

            有家長認為,優秀的孩子背后一定要有舍得付出、不停進步的家長。舍得花錢、花時間陪伴只是“牛娃”家長的最低配任務。陪孩子一起上課做筆記,回家復習,時刻關注孩子的學習狀態,才能收獲好成績。

            8月10日,記者在學而思的一家培優教學點看到,一間教室后面幾排坐著近20家長,都在認真做筆記,時不時拿出手機拍攝PPT課件。

            “老師講得難度有些大,孩子課堂上消化不了,做父母的可不能把孩子送進教室就不管不問。”家長李先生畢業于北京郵電大學,卻對記者笑著講道,培訓班的初一數學對自己這個理科生來說都有些難,需要記下來回家研究下,再輔導孩子。

            面對激烈的競爭,培訓機構的常規課程已經不能滿足優秀學生家長的需求,一些人選擇自己組班,又稱“攢班”。這些家長往往在小長假或者關鍵考試前攢成一個七八個人或者數十人的小班,盡管費用不菲,但是請到的都是教學經驗豐富的老師,教學雙方各得其所,都很滿意。

            去年夏天開始,培訓機構面臨治理風暴,有些機構暫時躲避檢查,而這類“攢班”受到一些家長的歡迎,因為其隱蔽性也成為教育部門的追查難點。

            教育有競爭,但不全是比賽,超前教育容易傷害孩子持續奔跑的能力

            一個月前,家住杭州的王磊在朋友圈寫道:“太幸運了,終于給娃搶到了PET名額。老父親不容易!”并配發了個眼淚縱橫的表情。王磊的孩子讀五年級,從4歲開始報班學英語。考PET,是為了加大小升初進知名民辦校的砝碼。

            PET源自劍橋通用英語五級考試,PET詞匯量要求則與高中畢業標準一致。近兩年,劍橋通用五級成為最被家長們重視的考試之一。需求暴漲讓考位成為了稀缺資源。據媒體報道,“北上廣深的考位三分鐘內就會被搶光。”

            成績優秀的孩子為何更熱衷上培訓班?在王磊孩子身上可以窺得答案:為了超前學習,提前搶跑。

            “就算是取消了奧數,可今年一些重點中學變相的點招考試仍以奧數為主;英語、語文要求也越來越高。教學大綱里就那點內容,可升學考試面試中,卻主要看超標內容。我們能不著急學嗎?”李俊父親對記者講道。

            中國教育在線總編輯陳志文在接受媒體采訪時表示:出于減負以及其它的考慮,我們課內一個總的趨勢是,相對越來越簡單,但是對好學校來講,尺子不可能是越來越簡單。這樣就造成一個差距,給了課外輔導班一些機會。

            培訓機構販賣焦慮加劇了家長的著急心態,進一步刺激家長的功利教育觀,“劇場效應”讓人們無法不加入各種補習班的洪流。

            近日,在教育部召開的新聞發布會上,談到校外培訓機構治理已經進行了一年多,仍然有很多家長尤其是在暑期熱衷于給孩子報班時,教育部基礎教育司司長呂玉剛講道,要進一步規范中小學招生入學秩序,堅決剪斷中小學招生入學工作與校外培訓掛鉤的行為。在此基礎上還要做到提高中小學校的教學質量,讓學生在學校學得更好、學得更足,不至于在學校里解決不了學習的問題,還要到校外去搞補償性培訓。

            不過,在從政府到全社會為提供更好、更公平的教育作出更多努力的同時,父母們如何擺正對待教育的態度,同樣至關重要。

            教育專家指出,教育有競爭,但不全是比賽,超前教育容易傷害孩子持續奔跑的能力。讓教育回歸本真,重視孩子成長發展的規律,讓孩子能夠擁有健康的身體、陽光的心態、健全的人格,是當前很多執著于拼娃卻越拼越迷失的父母急需補上的一課,也是教育者需要正視的命題。

            鏈接

            治理校外培訓熱,都有哪些大動作

            從2018年2月開始,教育部會同市場監管總局等有關部門,開展了為期一年半的校外培訓機構專項治理行動。目前,絕大多數培訓機構納入了監管之中,以《國務院辦公廳關于規范校外培訓機構發展的意見》為主體從上到下的制度體系基本建立。

            今年上半年,主要圍繞鞏固治理成果、促進長效機制建設方面重點開展工作。如進一步完善政策措施,教育部印發了《關于做好2019年普通中小學招生入學工作的通知》,就堅決斬斷校外培訓機構與學校掛鉤招生的利益鏈,再次明確政策規定。暑假前印發了《關于做好2019年中小學生暑假有關工作的通知》,部署各地加強重點區域巡查,防止違規培訓集中發生。

            各地將校外培訓機構信息錄入全國校外培訓機構管理服務平臺,發布黑白名單,方便群眾查詢和監督。教育部正在研究制定懲處違規培訓的有關辦法,為各地執法提供依據和保障。此外,教育部專門派出了7個調研組,赴10省份開展實地調研,督促各地常抓不懈,切實鞏固治理成果。

            據教育部有關負責人介紹,通過治理,有安全隱患和沒有取得辦學許可證的機構的問題得到了基本治理,基本完成整改。在規范線下培訓機構的同時,教育部會同有關部門聯合印發了《關于規范校外線上培訓的實施意見》,對面向中小學生、利用互聯網技術實施的學科類校外線上培訓活動提出了規范意見。

            下一步,將繼續加大校外培訓機構治理的力度。教育部正在研究制定校外培訓機構違規培訓處罰的辦法,這個處罰辦法當中,包括對超標超前培訓的處罰機制以及對培訓機構虛假宣傳廣告的治理辦法。同時也要繼續加大宣傳力度,幫助家長樹立正確的教育觀念,理性確定孩子的成長目標,防止盲目地攀比、爭相到校外培訓機構培訓,通過家校協同減輕學生過重課外負擔。

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